"...[H]e would exist just as authentically, and upon the same evidence, as Charlemagne..." (pg. 48)
Charlemagne was a masterful ruled of Europe in and 700's and 800's. He unified much of the Roman Empire to include France, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, parts of Germany, Italy Spain and Austria. Again, Orwell's reference to this leader is kept in the historical records to show him in a positive light and compare him to Big Brother.